STRAD Magazine, November 1981
Violin by Carl F. Becker mde in 1977, No 758(S).
Photograph courtesy of Bein & Fushi
小提琴 卡爾F.貝克1977年製作 編號第758(S)
相片由Bein & Fushi提供
STRAD Magazine November , 1981
Violin by Carl F. Becker mde in 1977, No 758(S).
Photograph courtesy of Bein & Fushi
小提琴 卡爾F.貝克1977年製作 編號第758(S)
相片由Bein & Fushi提供
* THE STRAD NOVEMBER 1984 by Anne Inglis
‘For the truly cultured pet, a Chicago Symphony Orchestra pet bowl. Specially weighted to make it unstoppable. In bright red plastic with white artwork on the side.’ This offer is one of the ‘specials’ available to listeners in the Chicago area in return for pledging a contribution to the Chicago Symphony in one of the local radio marathons on WFMT, the classical music station. These sessions of enter¬prise are lengthy – a typical marathon is 60 hours long, non-stop – but they en¬sure that the coffers of the Chicago Sym¬phony never run dry. The Chicago Sym¬phony Orchestra is undoubtedly the foremost musical ambassador of this the second largest city in the USA, but what might not be immediately realized is that I Chicago provides the most concentrated area of instrument making in America. There is a thriving school of making, several excellent individual makers, a notably Carl Becker, shops that combine S a considerable degree of making with c restoration and dealing, for example the r Reuter brothers, and then the main t heartbeats of Chicago dealing and t workshop restoration, Bein & Fushi and a Kenneth Warren. There is one essential difference between the making and playing fraternities in Chicago: most of the Symphony players have long-standing Chicago loyalties, while, as one dealer put it, ‘instruments move out of Chicago r with the cold’
Orchestra Hall, the Symphony’s main base, is situated next door to Bein & Fushi, and not far from Kenneth Warren, a convenient location for all concerned, though not quite convenient enough for Samuel Magad, co-concertmaster of the Symphony, who, though on perfectly amiable terms with his neighbours, bought his most recent instrument, a 1729 Guarnerius del Gesù from Jacques Francais in New York. 'I like the sound and I'm suited to this fiddle, says Magad. The Chicago Symphony owns a number of instruments, among which are two Strads, benefiting selected members of the orchestra at specific points in their careers. Samuel Magad, for example, took advantage of one of these when he was appointed assistant concertmaster needed a good instrument.
Magad, though, finds allegiance to one instrument difficult – at least this is the impression given by the galaxy of violins and bows he has owned. He started with a Becker, then for his first instrument in the Symphony – 26 years ago – he played a Landolphi, ‘very soprano soun¬ding’, graduating through others to a G. B. Rogeri, ‘a beautiful, lovely round quality’, a Seraphin, ‘I wasn't suited to this bigger sound’ (this instrument is now played by Philip Seltzer in the Emerson Quartet), and finally to the del Gesù, selling the Seraphin, and bows by Peccatte and Pajeot, to help finance the purchase of the del Gesù, ‘it is the timbre of sound I like, and it soars above the or¬chestra’. This last quality is necessary for the concerto role that all principals play in American orchestras, a vital dif¬ference in the hierarchical structure of American and British orchestras.
In Britain it is rare for the concertmaster to be offered a concerto role – in¬deed in most cases it is not expected – but in the USA solo playing is included in a principal’s contract. So when I visited Samuel Magad he was in the process of coming to grips with Hindemith’s Kam¬mermusik No. 4 which Claudio Abbado, the Symphony’s principal guest conduc¬tor, had persuaded him to learn, ‘much against my better judgement. Have you heard this piece? I never have – and it's very difficult to visualize’.
Magad shares the leadership of the Symphony with Victor Aitay – the leader’s chair is alternated weekly, an ar¬rangement not liked by all, it seems. Aitay is familiar to STRAD readers through his endorsement of Sensicore Strings, an advertisement running for some years now where Aitay is shown with his 1715 Baron von der Leyden Strad. Other principals of the string sec¬tion in the Symphony have also been with the orchestra some years, for exam¬ple Milton Preves, viola, who this year celebrates his fiftieth anniversary with the orchestra. Preves has been principal viola since 1939 and has played under every music director of the Symphony except Theodore Thomas, the founder. Preves plays a 1723 Montagnana, just another of the galaxy of fine instruments found in the Symphony's string section.
Unlike Samuel Magad, the principal cellist, Frank Miller, has been unswerv¬ingly loyal to his instrument, a modern cello by Paul Pilat made for Miller in 1941: 'I really wanted a Goffriller, but in those days the banks would lend money only on Strads, so Pilat, who made "Italian" cellos, made me a copy of a Goffriller’. Throughout the years Miller has looked for an old instrument but never really found anything he liked enough to exchange for the Pilat, and with Miller's fine history of playing who is going to worry about that? Miller join¬ed the NBC Symphony under Toscanini in 1939 and stayed for 15 years until 1954 when it was disbanded - 'I have nothing against any other conductor but Toscanini was in a class by himself. It wasn’t always easy playing lead cello to this great conductor, but it was the best education of my life'. How did Frank Miller end up playing for the Chicago Symphony? 'I heard that Fritz Reiner needed a cellist as two had retired so, armed with a recommendation from Toscanini, I was assigned for a contract from 1959 – 60’. Miller had already agreed to be assistant conductor of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra for the 1960 – 61 season under Antal Dorati (nephew of Reiner) and wanted to honour the contract, especially as Dorati became ill during the year. But he was invited back to Chicago anyway in 1961, to play first under Reiner, then Jean Martinon and now Georg Solti. `Solti is a different kind of person – he has pulled the or¬chestra by its bootstraps as high as it can go. There is a great string section and I think this sound must be attributed to the conductor'. Does the orchestra try as hard for a guest conductor? 'Yes, we must – it is our personal integrity and we must keep up our standards.’
芝加哥擁有出色的絃樂器製作者、世界聞名的交響樂團和著名的製作學校，是製作、演奏和交易絃樂器的重要中心，Anne Inglis報道、Lance Knobel攝影
“這個芝加哥交響樂團的寵物飯碗，給你家真正的文化貓文化狗。它經過特殊加重處理，不會翻倒。碗由紅色塑膠製成，邊上點綴著白色藝術圖案。”這是芝加哥古典音樂電臺WFMT上播出的當地募款馬拉松廣播，爲芝加哥交響樂團募款活動；芝加哥地區聽衆經由捐款可以得到的特別物品之一。這些節目播出很長時間，典型的長度是60個小時，而且不停頓，這樣他們保證芝加哥交響樂團的資金永遠不會用盡。芝加哥交響樂無疑是該美國第二大城市的最重要的音樂大使。但是人們可能不會立即認識到的是，芝加哥是美國樂器製作最集中的地方。這裏有生機勃勃的樂器製作學校、幾位出色的樂器製作者，如Carl Becker、同時從事樂器製作、修復和交易的商行，如Reuter brothers，以及芝加哥交易和修復工作室的中心，Bein&Fushi和Kenneth Warren。芝加哥樂器製作者和演奏者之間存在一個重要的差別：大多數交響樂團演奏者長期忠實於芝加哥這座城市，而正如交易商所說：“在天氣寒冷的時候，樂器都被從芝加哥搬走。
芝加哥交響樂團的主要基地——演奏大廳緊鄰Bein & Fushi，而且距離Kenneth Warren不遠，對於一切相關的人來說都芝加哥交響樂團的演奏大廳都處於非常方便的位置，但對芝加哥交響樂團的樂隊首席Samuel Magad來說，這個位置就不太方便了。儘管Samuel Magad與鄰居們關係友好，但他最近從紐約的Jacques Francais購買了最新使用的樂器，一把1729年産的Guaranrius del Gesu樂器。Magad說：“我喜歡它的音質，而且這把琴適合我。”芝加哥交響樂團擁有許多樂器，其中有兩把Strad(斯特拉迪瓦裏及其子製作的小提琴)。樂團中個別成員在其職業生涯中的特定時期允許使用這兩把小提琴。例如Samuel Magad在被任命爲助理樂隊首席，需要出色的樂器的時候就曾利用過其中那小提琴。
但是Magad發現很難與任何小提琴融合在一起，至少這是他所擁有的小提琴和弓給他留下了這樣的印象。他最初使用的小提琴是Becker家族製作的。他在26年前加入芝加哥交響樂團時使用的第一把樂器是一把音色很高的Landolphi小提琴。此後，他先後使用了其他樂器，然後開始使用G. B. Rogeri提琴，這是一把非常漂亮的提琴，質量出色。然後他使用了Seraphin小提琴，“但我不適合它的宏大聲音（這把提琴現在由Philip Seltzer在Emerson Quartet使用）”。最後他開始使用del Gesu小提琴和Peccatte和Pajeot製作的弓，並賣掉了Seraphin小提琴來籌集購買del Gesu小提琴的錢。“我喜歡它的音色，它的聲音超越了交響樂團其他聲音。”它的質量對於所有首席樂師在美國交響樂團中發揮的作用來說是必不可少的。這是美國和英國交響樂團中等級結構之間存在的重要差別。
在英國，很少爲樂團首席提供獨奏角色。在大多數情況下，確實人們不會期望存在這種安排。但在美國，在樂團首席的合同中包括獨奏。所以當我訪問Samuel Magad時，他正在學習Hindermith的Kammermusik第四章，Samuel Magad在樂團首席嘉賓指揮Claudio Abbado勸說下學習這首曲子。“出乎我的預料。你以前聽過這首曲子麽？我從未聽過——很難想象。”
Magad與Victor Aitay共同領導芝加哥交響樂團——二人每周輪流擔任樂團領導，但是似乎並不是所有人都喜歡這種安排。STRAD讀者通過已經播放多年的廣告Sensicore Strings對Aitay非常熟悉，在廣告中Aitay演奏1715年的Baron von der Leyden Strad提琴。芝加哥交響樂團弦樂組的其他主要獨奏者也在該樂團工作了多年，例如中提琴家Milton Preves今年在該樂團已經工作了15年。Preves自1939年期就成爲主要中提琴獨奏者，在除了樂團創始人Theodore Thomas之外的所有其他樂團音樂指導的指導下進行了演奏。Preves演奏1723年的Montagnana提琴，這只是該樂團弦樂組許多出色樂器之一。
與Samuel Magad不同，大提琴獨奏家Frank Miller 始終不渝地忠於他的樂器，由Paul Pilat在1941年爲他製作的現代大提琴。“我想要一把Goffriller，但是那時銀行只爲購買Strads提琴提供借款，所以製造仿製義大利大提琴的Pilat爲我製作了一把仿製Goffriller。”在這些年裏，Miller一直在尋找老樂器，但是從來沒有找到他喜歡程度達到願意用Pilat爲他製作的提琴來交換的樂器。由於Miller演奏技藝精湛，誰還對那擔心呢？Miller1939年加入Toscanini智慧的NBC交響樂團，並在該樂團演奏了15年，直到樂團解散。“我對除了其他指揮沒有任何反對意見，但Toscanini屬於單獨一類。在Toscanini指揮下演奏主音大提琴有時候並不輕鬆，但是這是我一生中接受的最好教育。Frank Miller最後怎麽進入了芝加哥交響樂團演奏？“我聽說Fritz Reiner需要一位元大提琴演奏家，因爲兩位大提琴演奏家退休了。在Toscanini的推薦下，我獲得了1959-1960年的芝加哥交響樂團聘用合同。此前Miller已經同意在1960-1961年期間在明尼阿波利斯交響樂團擔任指揮Antal Dorati（Reiner的侄子）的副指揮，他想履行這份合同，尤其在Dorati那一年生病之後。但1961年他還是被芝加哥交響樂團邀請回來，先是在Reiner、後來在Jean Martinon現在在Georg Solti手下演奏。“Solti是不同類的人，他努力使交響樂團取得盡可能的成功。該交響樂團擁有出色的弦樂組，我認爲我們的成功應該歸功於指揮。”交響樂團是否需要努力尋找嘉賓指揮？“是的，我們必須——這是我們的個人誠實品質，我們必須維持我們的標準。
There are very few openings in the Chicago Symphony each year – not sur¬prising considering the track record of so many of its players. Miller estimates that there are one or two places annually, and that about 128 apply for any place in the string section. There is an audition panel of 10 – 12 people and the auditions are held anonymously behind a screen – women are asked to take their shoes off to prevent any detection. Today can¬didates play a prepared selection of repertory but this was not always the case, as Samuel Magad recalls: ‘Reiner carried out all the auditions personally. He either liked you or he didn't, and if he did he took you on the spot – now it’s very different when the anonymous finalists play before Solti. Also, today there is prepared material but then it was all sight-reading. Reiner put this mass of black notes by Wagner in front of me, gave me a minute or so to look at it and told me to play. The idea was to see how quickly you could absorb it, but you don't go out and read concerts so now there is less emphasis on playing by sight’. Miller remembers playing everything he knew for his personal audition with Toscanini at the NBC – ‘for two hours I performed all my repertory, and all Toscanini’s’.
That Solti has brought the Chicago Sym¬phony great direction is agreed by most – the last ten years have brought a new brilliant sound to the string section. As music director he is helped by Claudio Abbado, the principal guest conductor, and Henry Mazer, the associate conduc¬tor. James Levine also plays his part as the music director of the orchestra's summer season which takes place out¬doors at Ravinia, north of Chicago. The choice of programmes here has to be carefully planned since the schedules allow only one rehearsal per concert, or series of concerts with the same pieces. Playing the same programme more than once is an integral part of the concert calendar in Chicago; for every series of three or four concerts there are at least three rehearsals – no wonder Magad does not foresee the likelihood of having to sightread a concert. However, not all the concerts given in Symphony Hall are given by the CSO since there are all kinds of different series given by visiting orchestras, chamber groups, soloists, and not least the Civic Orchestra of Chicago, the training orchestra of the CSO started in 1919 by Frederick Stock, the CSO’s music director after the founder, Theodore Thomas. This orchestra was the first training orchestra in the USA to be affiliated with a major symphony orchestra. The concerts given by the CSO are the only ones where a subscription scheme operates. Tickets for concerts in Chicago are scarce and there is a considerable waiting list before being allowed the benefit of subscribing – benefits not only for the subscribers but also the programme planners with their captive audience. American or¬chestras are run on a non-profit making basis encouraging not only monetary pledges to radio marathons but also healthy donations from local music afi¬cionados so necessary to keep the wheels well oiled.
VIOLIN MAKING SCHOOL
It could be said that the equivalent of the Civic Orchestra in the instrument world in Chicago is the Chicago School of Violin Making, one of only about three or four such centres in America and one of the more prestigious, its main rival being Peter Paul Prier's school in Salt Lake City. It was started by Kenneth Warren and recently taken over by Tschu Lo Lee, a very well respected maker and restorer, and teacher too, it seemed, judging from the infinite time and pa¬tience he was giving to the students dur¬ing my visit. The school had just taken over a new building, indeed at first the premises did look rather unlikely – a dilapidated house in a deserted street with a front door that looked firmly bar¬red and locked. However, on learning that the front used to be a vegetable shop and the back a car shop the appearance was understandable, and on ringing the bell and then walking into a bright, shut¬tered room filled with students (natural light did not seem to be favoured as it causes shadows) the deserted feeling also disappeared. The school takes about 29 students altogether, and the course lasts three-and-half years. There is no ability test and consequently a long waiting list, with students constituting a broad international spectrum, for exam¬ple there were two students from Korea, one from Switzerland, a Canadian, a Hawaiian etc. Next year the school is planning to accept students from the Republic of China.
The students advance gradually, start¬ing with building a body their first term, two bodies their second and three necks their third according to the Amati, Stradivari and del Gesu models. The in¬struments, or composite parts, are examined at every stage by Lee, and in their turn the students are able to watch Lee at work as he carries out private work on the school premises. Lee con¬siders this of tremendous benefit to the students and pointed out that other schools do not always cater for this aspect of students’ development. The fourth term is spent on a viola (the other bodies were all fiddles). After this the student should build two more in¬struments, which, including the ex¬amination instrument, makes theminimum of six, a requirement stipulated by the course. The exam instrument is made during a six-week period; the instrument need be taken only as far as the white but another instrument has to be varnished and set up. During these six weeks the student is permitted to work I only school hours, necessitating fast working: There are also other parts to the exam – theory, history (written and oral identification), playing (the student r must give a short recital), but workmanship and theory are considered the most important. The marks for each section are kept separate, so a good craftsman is not penalized by poor playing, for example. There are four grades of marking: excellent, good, fair and unsatisfactory, with examiners, notably Kenneth Warren, being called in from outside the the school to give independent verdicts.。
大多數人同意是Solit將芝加哥交響樂團引入輝煌的發展方向。上一十年爲弦樂組帶來了新的卓越獨特音樂風格。作爲音樂指導，Solit得到首席嘉賓指揮Claudio Abbado和副指揮Henry Mazer的幫助。James Levine還在樂團在芝加哥北部Ravina戶外舉行的夏季演出中擔任音樂指導。在這裏必須謹慎地規劃節目選擇，因爲每場音樂會或曲目相同的系列音樂會只允許進行一次彩排。在芝加哥多次演奏同一節目是音樂會日程表的有機組成部分。每三或四場系列音樂會就需進行至少3次彩排。難怪Magad不預測必須即興音樂會演出的可能性。但是由於訪問樂團、室內樂演奏團體、獨奏家和芝加哥市民管弦樂團（Civic Orchestra of Chicago）和芝加哥交響樂團下屬的培訓樂團來芝加哥交響樂團演奏大廳進行各類演出，因此並不是所有在演奏大廳舉行的音樂會都是由芝加哥交響樂團演出的。芝加哥交響樂團培訓樂團是Frederick Stock在1919年創辦的，Frederick Stock是芝加哥交響樂團繼創立人Theodore Thomas之後的音樂指導。該培訓樂團是美國首個附屬於幾大交響樂團的培訓樂團。
可以說在芝加哥的樂器界，芝加哥小提琴製作學校（Chicago School of Violin Making）與芝加哥市民管弦樂團性質等同，它是美國僅有的三四個此類中心之一，而且該學校更爲出名。該學校的主要競爭對手是位於鹽湖城的Peter Paul Prier的學校。芝加哥小提琴製作學校是由Kenneth Warren創辦的，最近被聲譽很高的樂器製作者和修理者Tschu Lo Lee接收。我在訪問期間，看到Tschu Lo Lee將大量時間和耐心都投入到學生身上，所以他似乎還是一名教師。這所學校剛剛買下了一棟新建築。這棟建築原來是冷清街道上的殘破房屋，前門來非常牢固而且被緊鎖，最初這裏看來似乎不可能供學校使用。但是當得知樓的前門臉過去曾是蔬菜店而後部曾是汽車店，就會理解它的外觀的爲什麽會是如此。當按響門鈴，走進明亮的擠滿了學生的房間時（這裏不喜歡自然光，因爲自然光會産生影子）荒涼冷清的感覺就會消失。該學校共有29名學生，課程持續三年半。由於沒有能力考試，所以等候入學的人員名單很長。學生們來自範圍廣泛的不同國家，例如兩名學生來自韓國、一名學生來自瑞士、一名來自加拿大、一名來自夏威夷。明年，學校準備接收來自台灣的學生。
學生逐步進步，第一學期從製作一副琴身、第二個學期製作兩副琴身、第三學期根據Amati、Stradivari和del Gesu模型製作三副琴頸。Lee在每個階段都會對小提琴或組成部件進行檢查。在Lee在學校進行私人工作時，學生們能夠觀察Lee的工作。Lee認爲這對學生非常有益，並指出其他學校並不總是考慮學生在這方面的發展。第四學期的時間用在一把中提琴上（其他學習物件都是小提琴）。此後學生會製作另外兩把樂器，其中包括一把考試樂器，這樣學生最少需要製作6把樂器，這是課程規定的要求。考試樂器在6星期時間內完成，考試的一件樂器是白琴，但另一件樂器必須上漆。在這6個星期的時間裏，只允許學生在上學時間工作，這使學生必須快速進行工作。考試還包含其他部分——理論、歷史（書面和口頭鑒定）、演奏（學生必須演奏一小段），但是手藝和理論被認爲是最重要的。各部分考試的得分是相互分離的，例如好工匠不會由於不擅長演奏而受到懲罰。在評分中採用四個等級：優秀、良好、一般和不滿意。從學校外聘請考官，如Kenneth Warren來進行獨立評判。
Lee has two assistnts to help with the students, one a student assistant Brian Derber, and the other Peter Stolley, an ex-student of the school. Stolley regarded himself as fortunate that he could go on learning from Lee, but final-year students I spoke to did not seem particularly worried about finding jobs — this confidence was quite reassuring. Some wanted apprenticeships, others wanted to start out on their own but all were anxious to learn, learn and learn again. In terms of seeking a desirable home, as one student put it ‘Carl Becker is right at the top’, disconsolately adding, ‘but openings are rare’. Considering that Becker has only one assistant, Sebastian Zens, in addition to his son Paul working in his shop, at least when I visited him, the rarity value is not surprising. All the more too as Becker is considered by makers worldwide to be a superlative craftsman and part of a family dynasty of great makers. Becker’s great grandfather, Herman Macklett (Becker’s – father’s mother’s father) worked as respected luthier in Chicago during the second half of the 19th century. But it was his grandson who really put the family into the limelight, Carl G. Becker, and who began the Becker numbering of instruments in 1901 with No. 1. He worked with John Hornsteiner at Lyon & Healy from 1903, leaving to work for William Lewis & Son in 1924, at this point beginning the numbering again at 100. It was also in 1924 that the family tradition began of adjourning to the woods in north Wisconsin every summer in order to make new instruments.
In 1936 Carl F. Becker, Becker’s son, started his first work on instruments, beginning on cello ribs, and then joined Lewis to be with his father in 1937. It was not until 1968 that the company Carl Becker and Son was formed and which now contains both ‘Carl F. Becker’s children, Paul and Jenny. It was Jenny who showed early promise particularly young, starting to work part-time at the shop when she was eleven – ‘she was by very determined’ confirms her father.
The colours of the Becker instruments of range from light golden to red, but the quality of wood throughout remains consistent, and has extraordinary depth and a strength, shown, for example in the wear the and tear of the viola illustrated here which was made in 1952 by father and the son. Common characteristics of all Becker instruments include a soft varnish and a bright, very strong tone. How does Becker continue to produce instruments with the same tonal features? The thicknessing is very important – the differences in thicknessing do seem to explain the difference in sound. Other things, too, must be considered, arching, for example, varnish, and the coating of the wood’. Generations of experience, no wonder every student wants to learn something from him.
Lee請了兩名助理來幫助學生，分別是學生助理Brian Derber和曾經是該校學生的Peter Stolley。Stolley認爲自己是幸運的因爲他可以繼續從Lee學習到東西。但是和我談話的畢業班學生對找到工作並不特別擔心，這種自信是非常令人放心的。一些學生想去做學徒，其他學生想要自己創業，但所有學生都非常熱衷於不斷地學習。在找到一個理想的家族進行工作方面，一位學生說“Carl Becker”家族排在第一位，但又不高興地補充說：“但空缺非常少。”由於Becker只有一名助理，至少在我訪問的時候，Sebastian Zens和Becker的兒子Paul爲Becker工作，這種稀缺價值就不足爲奇了。Becker被全世界的樂器製作者們視爲最優秀的工匠和偉大製作者家族王朝的一部分，這進一步提升了這種價值。Becker的曾祖父Herman Macklett（Becker父親的外公）在19世紀後半期是芝加哥頗受尊重的絃樂器製作者。但Herman的孫子Carl G. Becker使家族大出風頭。Carl G. Becker在1901年從做出編號1號的Becker提琴。Carl G. Becker從1903年起在Lyon & Healy與John Hornsteiner合作，1924年Becker離開Lyon &Healy去了Williams Lewis& Son，此時再度從100號開始進行編號。也是在1924年，Becker家族開始了每年夏天離開芝加哥到威斯康星州北部的森林裏製作新樂器的傳統。
1936年，Becker的兒子Carl F. Becker首次開始樂器工作，從大提琴琴身側板開始入手，隨後在1937年加入Lewis與父親一起工作。直到1968年才建立了Carl Becker and Son公司，Carl F. Becker的兩個孩子Paul和Jenny現在也加入了家族企業。Jenny在非常小的時候就顯露出在樂器製造方面的發展希望，11歲的時候就開始利用業餘時間在店裏工作。她的父親確認說：“她非常有決心。”